Every city, town, and village in this vast country of over 1 billion people has its roadside stands and hawkers. Indians eat street food at breakfast, lunch, and dinner, as an afternoon snack (often taken home for “tea”), and during festivals when special dishes are prepared. Vendors set up shop near office buildings, schools, railway stations, beaches (such as Bombay’s Chowpatti Beach or Chennai’s Marine Drive), places of worship, and in crowded markets, such as Delhi’s ancient Chandni Chowk or Mumbai’s Khao Gali (food lane). There are an estimated 300,000 street food vendors in Delhi and 130,000 vendors in Kolkata alone.
The Hindi word for vendor is ‘wallah’, which is attached to the name of the item being sold; e.g., kebabwallah, paanwallah, etc. Most ‘wallahs’ are men. Their cooking equipment includes grills, tawas (a flat heavy griddle), karahis (a wok-like pot used for deep frying), or sometimes little more than a burner and a kettle to make tea. Street food can be savory or sweet, and often is vegetarian. This vastly expands the potential audience, since many Hindus do not eat meat. Also, meat is expensive.
Many street foods are seasonal: Roasted corn and sweet potato are favorites in the winter, certain fruits in the summer. But everywhere you go, any time of the day or night, you’ll find vendors selling chai – hot milky sweet tea served in a disposable clay cups. Chai can be either plain or masala — boiled with various spices, such as ginger, cardamom, cloves, even red chilies.
In 2014, the Street Vendors Association of India won a victory when it the Indian parliament passed the Street Vendors (Protection of Livelihood and Regulation of Street Vending Act to standardize regulations and the issuance of license and prevent harassment by the police.
Street food is made to order and eaten on the spot, since in a hot climate it is not safe to eat dishes that have rested a while. Some stalls have a few rickety chairs and tables but usually the dishes are eaten standing or on the move. Food safety is a major problem because many vendors have no access to clean water or disposal facilities, and often cook and handle food with dirty hands. In 2007 the Delhi city government tried to ban the preparation of food at street stands, in a move supported by India’s High Court, but the order proved unenforceable and has not been implemented. In theory hawkers are licensed but in practice, only a small minority are, with the result that they are subject to harassment and demands for bribes by officials. Also, the residents of more upscale areas sometimes also object to the presence of street vendors.
Street food vendor using bottled gas
Meanwhile, street food is moving ‘off the street,’ especially in urban areas. Chains like Jumbo King in Bombay and The Great Kebab Factory offer sanitized versions of traditional dishes. Street food courts are being added to modern urban shopping malls.Western fast foods are making inroads into India, and hot dogs, made from meat, vegetables or paneer (a hard milk cheese) are especially popular. India has at least one food truck, “Nick’s Mom” in Hyderabad, run by an Indian living in America.
India is a vast country of 16 official languages, eight religions, and countless ethnic groups, each with their own customs. Thus, every city and region in India has its own special street foods. However, as transportation and communication improve and people move elsewhere in search of jobs, many foods have become universal and are enjoyed throughout not only India but Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh.
MAJOR STREET FOODS
Chaat (from a Hindi word meaning to lick) is a generic term for the savory fried spicy snacks that are the archetypal Indian street food and in recent years have appeared on the menus of many top restaurants (at many times the original price). Chaat is also the name of a specific dish: a mixture of crumbled fried dough and potatoes, sometimes lentils or chickpeas, a spice blend called chaat masala, gur, coriander leaves, yogurt and two or three chutneys (sauces). The most common chutneys are a sweet and sour brown sauce made with tamarind and jaggery (a gritty brown sugar) and a green sauce of coriander leaves, mint, and green chilies. Yogurt is added on top to aid digestion. The result is an appetizing combination of flavors – sweet, sour, hot, and cool. Each serving is made to order, served in a paper cone and eaten on the spot.
Although Mumbai is famous for its chaat, the dish is most likely North Indian in origin. One of the most popular in North India and Pakistan is channa chaat (also called channa masala or chole masala). The vendor starts with a layer of boiled chickpeas to which he adds (in order) boiled potatoes, finely sliced green chilies, chopped onions and tomatoes. He tops this with a sour tamarind and a sweet mango chutney, yogurt and with chaat masala. According to legend, this dish became the rage in the 14th century at the court of a Delhi ruler whose physician recommended it to keep stomach problems and germs at bay. A common accompaniment is bhatura -- a large slightly puffy wheat bread.
Papri chaat starts with papris — crisp fried round wafers made from white flour and oil — to which are added boiled potatoes and chickpeas, tamarind and chili sauces, yogurt, chaat masala, and a sprinkling of sev (thin crispy noodles made from wheat flour. )
One of the most popular chaats is called gol gappa in Delhi, pani puri in Mumbai and phhuchka in Kolkata . It consists of a serving of puris — tiny rounds made from a flour or semolina dough that are deep fried until they puff up into hard hollow balls. The balls are punctured and filled with mashed potatoes or boiled chickpeas and then dipped in a sour or savory liquid that may contain tamarind, cumin seed, lemon juice, mint, or dates and goes inside the puri. The customer must pop the whole thing into his or her mouth to prevent it spilling all over.
A variation is dahi puri, in which beaten yogurt is poured over the stuffing. Typically five or six puris are served on a disposable plate made from leaves or paper.
Originally a popular snack associated with the city of Mumbai, bhelpuri became so popular that it has turned up on the menu of upscale Indian restaurants. Recipes start with a base of puffed rice and boiled potatoes, topped with sev (deep fried noodles), onion, coriander leaves, chaat masala, and brown and green sauces. At the request of the customer, the vendor can add tomato, peanuts, more chilies, diced mango, and other ingredients. Another popular chaat consists of seasonal fruits sprinkled with chaat masala.
Kebabs are grilled or roasted meat dishes that probably originated in Central Asia where nomads roasted chunks of meat over a fire. Their relative ease of preparation makes them ideal candidates for street food, since all that is needed is a grill and wood or charcoal. They are usually served with bread, such as naan or paratha, and dipping sauces. The vendors are often Muslim, and in cities like Delhi and Hyderabad, kebabs are sold outside mosques. The common meats are goat, chicken and beef (although the latter is avoided by most Hindus). Spicing can be intense and include garlic, ginger, and aromatic spices such as ginger, cardamom and cloves.
Boti kebabs are chunks of meat marinated in yogurt, spices and herbs, threaded on a metal or wooden skewer and roasted over charcoal. Kathi kebabs are boti kebabs wrapped in a roti (a soft round wheat bread) and mixed with onions, chilies, and sauces. This dish, which originated in a restaurant called Nizam in Kolkata, is typically served wrapped in paper and is a favorite of students.
Seekh kebabs are sausage-shaped kebabs made from ground spiced lamb or goat threaded on long skewers and grilled. Kakori kebab and galouti kebab are light, delicate kebabs made with meat that is ground extremely fine and whipped.
Seekh Kebabs roasting over an open grill.
A kebab that is also popular in Iran and Afghanistan is shammi kebab — a disc-shaped patty resembling a hamburger made of spiced ground meat and chickpeas beaten until they are light and airy and lightly sautéed in a pan. Chapli kebab (from the Persian word for ‘sandal’ because of its shape) is a large flat round kebab popular in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and North India.
Kofta is a generic term for a dish of well-kneaded ground meat mixed with vegetables, grains, and other ingredients and formed into balls, patties or sausages. Koftas may be grilled, fried, steamed, or sautéed. Pasinda kebab are long strips of meat marinated in yogurt and spices, threaded on skewers and baked or grilled.
Indian workers returning from the Middle East have introduced shawarma. Shaved lamb, goat, or chicken are compressed on a rotating spit, grilled, and sliced off as needed. The meat is placed on a flat bread and topped with chutney or ketchup.
Jalebis are pretzel-shaped orange-colored coils of chickpea batter drizzled through holes in a spoon into boiling oil and soaked in sugar syrup that may be flavored with lime juice or rosewater. Jalebis are served either hot or cold. The sweet is of Arab origin and came to India in the 14th or 15th century. The most famous vendor is Delhi’s Old Famous Jalebiwala in Chandni Chowk, which has been there since 1884 and sells only jalebis and samosas – a mouth-watering combination.
Pakoras (bhajis) These fried fritters are a universal favorite and a popular teatime snack. Chopped potatoes, onions, cauliflower, eggplants, spinach, egg, or paneer are coated in a spiced chickpea flour batter, deep fried, and served with a spicy green chutney or ketchup (which is totally authentic!).
Pakoras with chutney
PAKORAS (Indian Vegetable Fritters)
1 medium eggplant (around 1 pound) or 1 medium sweet potato
7 ounces chickpea flour
1 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon chili powder (or to taste)
1/2 teaspoon turmeric powder.
1 cup cold water, more or less
1 cup of vegetable oil for frying
1. Cut the vegetables into slices approximately 1/4 inch thick and 2 inches in diameter and set aside.
2. Combine the chickpea flour, salt, chili powder and turmeric powder in a large bowl. Stir in enough water, to make a thick batter. Keep it cold if possible.
3. Heat the oil in a wok or deep skillet until it is smoking. Mix the vegetable slices in the batter and drop them into the oil one at a time and cook until golden brown.
4. Remove the cooked vegetables with a slotted spoon and drain the excess fat.
Serve hot with tomato chutney or ketchup.
Serves 4 to 6
Now a staple of India restaurants and cocktail parties, samosas remain a popular street food that people often take home to enjoy at afternoon tea. In the vegetarian version, mashed potatoes, peas, red chili powder, turmeric and other spices are wrapped in a white flour dough that is formed into little triangles, deep fried and served with coriander or mint chutney. A non-veg version is filled with ground spiced meat, usually lamb.
Throughout India hawkers sell fresh fruit and vegetable in season. Radishes, cucumbers, tomatoes, are sliced on the spot and sprinkled with a mixture of chaat masala, salt, and fresh lemon juice. Seasonal fruits are finely sliced and layered with marmalade and paneer to make fruit sandwiches.
Slices of fruits in season – mangoes, pineapples, oranges, grapefruit, jackftruit, and many fruits without Western equivalents – are a popular street food.
Kulfi is an ancient and very delicious sweet that can be flavored with dozens of ingredients, the most popular being mango, pistachios, and cardamom. Cream is frozen in triangular molds around a little twig or stick.
Western-style ice cream served in a cone is very popular. Golas are a poor man’s version -- basically crushed ice balls bathed in a colored flavored syrup, sprinkled with lime juice, black salt and pepper, and served on a stick. There are hundreds of flavors, including traditional ones like mango, mint, rose, and orange and modern flavors such as chocolate and cocktail. The customer slurps loudly while licking the gola to remove the syrup, which the vendor will replenish.
Spicy roasted corn on the cob (in Hindi bhutta) is a staple of street food in India, as in many other developing countries since it is inexpensive and requires no special equipment to prepare. In India, it is associated with the monsoon season. After roasting over hot coals until the kernels start to blacken, the corn is generously sprinkled with a spice mixture that is unique to each vendor, but always includes red chili powder and salt, and then sprinkled with lemon juice. Sometimes the corn is boiled and served with a tamarind cjutney
Momos are steamed dumplings filled with meat or vegetables originated in Tibet and became popular among hippies and trekkers in Nepal in the sixties and seventies. Today they are one of India’s most popular street foods, especially among students who enjoy them with a spicy chili sauce.
India can be searingly hot, especially in summer when temperatures can reach 115°, so there are many cooling refreshing drinks sold on the street. Fresh limes or lemons are squeezed and mixed with sugar and salt to make nimbu pani.
Lassi is a cold yogurt drink that may be either salty or sweet. In the salty version the yogurt is beaten with cumin seed, water, and salt until it is frothy. The sweet version is made of yogurt, sugar, and sometimes crushed banana or mango pulp.
LASSI ( Sweet Yogurt Drink, India)
1 cup plain yogurt
1/2 cup milk
1 cup chopped mango (peeled and stone removed)
2 to 4 teaspoons sugar (to taste)
A dash of ground cardamom (optional)
Place yogurt, sugar, mango, and water in the bowl of a blender or food processor. Process until frothy. Top with crushed ice and cardamom.
Jal jeera is a mixture of ice water, lemon juice, cumin powder, salt and sometimes mint. Many vendors sell sugar cane juice, made by pressing the stalks on the spot, and coconut water.
Sugar cane juice is popular throughout India, especially in the summer months. It is squeezed by roadside vendors using special equipment and served fresh in glasses with ir without ice. Sometimes lemon, ginger, and mint are added.
Turmeric: The Wonder Spice
Thursday, 27 February 2014 19:06
One of the most versatile and ancient spices is turmeric. From time immemorial turmeric has been used in Asia as a dye, a flavoring, a ritual and ceremonial item, a medicine and an antiseptic. The English name for the spice is thought to come from the Latin terra merita, which means worthy or meritorious earth – and the name is well deserved, for turmeric is truly a wonder spice!
For thousand of years, spices have played an important role in Indian, Chinese and Indonesian medicine. Of all the spices, none was more important than turmeric. It was used to treat gastrointestinal and pulmonary disorders, diabetes, atherosclerosis, bacterial infections, gum disease, skin diseases. Even today, South Asians apply a paste of turmeric and water as an antiseptic to cuts and strains, take a teaspoon in warm milk or yogurt after a meal as an aid to digestion or to relieve the symptoms of a fever, and breathe steam infused with turmeric to relieve congestion.
Health food manufacturers have jumped on the turmeric bandwagon by producing expensive supplements. But it’s just as easy and more pleasing to the palate, to incorporate turmeric in one's diet on a regular basis.
My new e-book, Turmeric: The Wonder Spice, coauthored with Helen Saberi, will show readers how to do this by offering recipes that are delicious and nutritious, easily adding wonderful flavor to any meal while also promoting lifelong healthy habits. You can order copies on Amazon, Barnes and Noble and other websites.
Here’s a couple of recipe to try at home.
Five-Minute Fish with Salsa
This very easy to make dish, developed by one of the author’s husbands, is perfect for emergencies, such as the arrival of unexpected guests. It also has the advantage of being fat free.
4 firm-fleshed fillets of fish (c. 4 – 6 oz/110 – 175 g each) such as red snapper or lemon sole
½ teaspoon salt
½ - 1 tablespoon ground turmeric
¼ cup (60 ml) thick ready-made tomato salsa
½ teaspoon ginger chutney (available at Indian grocery stores) or 1/2 tsp crushed ginger
Mix the salt and turmeric, then rub a generous amount over the fillets. Place them in a micro-safe plastic bag and add the salsa. Seal the bag and cook in a microwave at full power for 2 minutes. Test for doneness and cook for an additional 30 seconds if necessary.
Shake the fish and salsa into a micro-safe serving bowl or plate. Add the ginger chutney or crushed ginger and return the bowl to the microwave, uncovered, and heat for 30 seconds to release the aroma of the ginger.
Serve with rice.
Cumin, Fennel and Turmeric Crusted Pork Tenderloin
Makes 4 - 6 servings
This recipe, which we have adapted slightly, has been given to us by Chef Joe Randall, an award-winning chef and proprietor of the famous Savannah Cooking School in Georgia.
2 pork tenderloins (12 oz, 350 g each), trimmed
2 tablespoons fennel seed, ground
2 tablespoons cumin, ground
½ tablespoon turmeric ground
4 tablespoons olive oil
¼ - ½ tablespoon kosher salt
1 – 2 tablespoons freshly ground black pepper
Trim the pork tenderloins. Combine the fennel, cumin, turmeric, salt, and pepper. Coat the tenderloins with olive oil and season heavily with the spices, patting them into the oil as much as possible.
Pan sear all sides of the pork tenderloin in a hot oiled skillet. Finish in a pre-heated oven at 3750 F (1900C, Gas mark 5) for 15 to 20 minutes. Allow to rest, carve and serve with fresh vegetables of your choice.
Gujarati Sweets Warm up the Winter
Monday, 21 November 2011 00:00
In winter, Gujaratis prepare certain sweets considered to have healthful heating properties. One is gundar pak (the light brown spheres in the photograph) which is made from wheat flour, sugar, ghee, ginger, ganthoda (valerian), and gundar (an edible gum made from the resin of the axle tree). Another is salam pak (the dark squares) which contains over 30 ingredients, including cloves, pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg, almonds, pistachios, Indian ginseng, and a whole host of ayurvedic herbs. It has a wonderfully complex, piquant flavor. In Chicago, you can find these and other Gujarati specialties at Sukhadia’s Sweets on Devon Avenue. Owner Jayant Sukhadia comes from a family who has been in the sweetmaking business in India for 130 years. In May, the culinary Historians of Chicago held a program at the store that was broadcast on WBEZ. http://www.wbez.org/story/learn-all-about-indian-sweets-and-snacks-86862
Street Food around the World
Monday, 07 October 2013 17:52
Street Food around the World: An Encylopaedia of Food and Culture, ed. Bruce Kraig and Colleen Taylor Sen.
(ABC Clio, 2013; http://www.abc-clio.com/product.aspx?isbn=9781598849547). Retail price: $100. Available on Walmart.com for $60.
An estimated 250 million people eat street food every day, and for many, street food is their main source of nutrition. Once associated mainly with developing countries, street food is making inroads into the developed world, especially in North America with the advent of food trucks in major cities. Not to be outdone, top chefs have opened restaurants specializing in street food, and items such as hot dogs, bhelpuri, and tacos have been reincarnated as gourmet items on the menus of upscale restaurants. Television programs, even entire series, are devoted to exploring the culinary delights of the street. Street food is one of the centerpieces of culinary tourism for people in pursuit of unique and memorable eating and drinking experiences.
This encyclopedia is the first book of its scope devoted to this important, endlessly fascinating culinary realm. It surveys the popular street foods of around 100 countries and regions of the world, showing how these ‘fast foods of the common people’ fit into the economy, history, and environment. It covers not only such street food superstars as India, China, Thailand, and Mexico but countries where street food plays a less important role, such as those in northern Europe. Our reasoning was that travelers to these countries might also be search of a street food experience, which may be somewhat harder to find.
Contributors include some of the world’s leading food historians, academics, and journalists who are specialists in their countries. A chapter of recipes lets you taste international dishes at home.
2-3 tablespoon vegetable oil for frying 1 medium white onion, cut into thin rings 2 cans chick peas, rinsed and drained (or the same amount of freshly boiled chick peas) 1 red bird chili, finely chopped (or substitute chili powder to taste) 1 teaspoon ground cumin 2 teaspoon ground coriander salt to taste, if needed
1. Heat the oil in a wok or skillet. 2. Fry the onions until lightly browned. 3. Add the drained chick peas and stir-fry briefly. 4. Add the chili and spices and continue to stir-fry for a minute or two. 5. Taste for salt and add some if needed. Canned chick peas are usually salty enough. 6. Serve warm or at room temperature as a snack, with optional readymade West Indian pepper sauce if you like your food very spicy. (Mexican habanero sauce is also good.)
CHAPLI KEBAB (Afghanistan) (Makes 12) From Helen Saberi
1 pound finely chopped lamb or beef 12 ounces green onions, finely chopped 4 ounces white flour ½ sweet bell pepper (green or red), de-seeded and finely chopped 4 hot green chilies, de-seeded and finely chopped (use less if a milder version is preferred) 3-4 Tablespoons fresh cilantro, finely chopped 2 teaspoons ground cilantro seed Salt to taste ½ cup vegetable oil for frying ¼ cup extra fresh cilantro for garnishing 12 lemon wedges
1.Place the meat, scallions, flour, both kinds of pepper, fresh and ground cilantro and salt to taste in a bowl and mix and knead thoroughly until the mixture is smooth and sticky. Shape the mixture into around 12 flat oblongs about 6” by 4” and ¼” thick.
2.Heat enough vegetable oil in a frying-pan to fry the kebabs (which should be almost covered by the oil), and fry over a medium to high heat until they are brown on both sides and cooked through (about 10 minutes).
Serve with a tomato and onion salad and chapati or naan. Garnish with fresh cilantro and lemon wedges.
Bitter Melon, Sweet Potential
Monday, 19 September 2011 16:23
All summer I watched the vine with its delicate leaves and lovely little yellow flowers grow up the iron banister of my stairs at the rate of several inches a day. planted the seeds in June but had given up hope of any harvest. Then, this morning, I saw them, two little pale green ribbed cucumbers with warts: baby bitter melons. This weird-looking vegetable — called karela in Hindi and Bengali, fuk wa in Cantonese, ampalaya in the Philippines, nigai uri in Japanese, and bitter melon, bitter gourd, or balsam pear in English — is highly valued in many Asian cuisines for its interesting flavor, appetite-stimulating properties, and health benefits.